English Grammar: Conditionals

Complete each sentence with a suitable form of the verb in brackets.

1) If Spain __________ (win) the World Cup, what ______ you _______ (do)?

2) If you __________ (must not) hurry, you __________ (miss) the plane.

3) I didn’t know that Henry had had an accident, otherwise I __________ (visit) him.

4) Where __________ you __________ (go) if you __________ (can) decide?

5) If Ann __________ (go) to the supermarket, please __________ (tell) her to buy milk.

Answers:

1) If Spain __________ (win) the World Cup, what ______ you _______ (do)?

  • If Spain won the World Cup, what would you do (do)?

2) If you __________ (must not) hurry, you __________ (miss) the plane.

  • If you mustn’t hurry, you’ll miss the plane.

3) I didn’t know that Henry had had an accident, otherwise I __________ (visit) him.

  • I didn’t know that Henry had had an accident, otherwise I would have visited him.

4) Where __________ you __________ (go) if you __________ (can) decide?

  • Where would you go if you could decide?

5) If Ann __________ (go) to the supermarket, please __________ (tell) her to buy milk.

  • If Ann goes to the supermarket, please tell her to buy milk.

Extra examples & explanation:

Basic rules:

Zero Conditional: It is always true; 100%. It is, for example, a scientific fact.

(Siempre es cierto; 100%. Es, por ejemplo, un hecho científico).

  • The structure of the conditional (La estructura del condicional)

If + simple present + simple present

  • An example

If you heat ice, it melts.

(Si calientas hielo, se derrite)

1st Conditional: It is a real possibility in the future.

(Es una posibilidad real en el futuro)

  • The structure of the conditional

If + simple present + simple future (will)

  • An example

If she doesn’t take an umbrella, she’ll get wet.

(Si ella no coge un paraguas, se mojará)

  • Note: Imperatives can be used to replace either clause of the first conditional

(Nota: Los imperativos se pueden utilizar para reemplazar cualquier oración del primer condicional)

  • An example

If you go to Paris, visit the Eiffel Tower.

(Si vas a París, visita la Torre Eiffel)

2nd Conditional: A hypothetical situation in the present. It is something that does not happen.

(Una situación hipotética en el presente. Es algo que no sucede)

  • The structure of the conditional

If + subject + past tense / subject + would/could (not) + infinitive + clause

  • An example

If she studied, she would pass.

(Si ella estudiara/estudiase, aprobaría)

3rd Conditional: A hypothetical situation in the past. It is something that did not happen.

(Una situación hipotética en el pasado. Es algo que no sucedió)

  • The structure of the conditional

If + subject + past perfect / subject + would/could (not) have + infinitive + clause

  • An example

If she hadn’t studied, she wouldn’t have passed.

(Si ella no hubiera/hubiese estudiado, no habría aprobado)

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