English Grammar: Reported Speech (1)

Convert the phrases below into reported speech.

1) "My parents lived in London for twenty years," he said.

He said_______________________________________

2) "I'll help your mother with her bags," she said.

She said______________________________________

3) "I'm feeling happy now," said John.

______________________________________________

Answers:

1) "My parents lived in London for twenty years," he said.

He said that his parents had lived in London for twenty years.

2) "I'll help your mother with her bags," she said.

She said that she would help her mother with her bags.

3) "I'm feeling happy now," said John.

John said that he was feeling happy then.

Explanation:

If someone says a sentence, and later we want to say that sentence to someone else, we use the reported speech.

(Si alguien dice una oración, y más tarde queremos decir esa oración a otra persona, utilizamos el reported speech)

Let's imagine this situation:

(Imaginemos esta situación:)

Tom: "I like your shirt" ("Me gusta tu camisa")

Tom said that he liked my shirt. (Tom dijo que le gustaba mi camisa")

Please see how the tense has changed. It was present simple and it has changed to past simple.

(Por favor mira cómo el tiempo del verbo ha cambiado. Estaba en presente simple y ha cambiado a pasado simple.)

There are normally some changes; tenses and certain words. Please, see the below changes.

(Normalmente hay algunos cambios; tiempos y ciertas palabras. Por favor, mira los cambios de abajo)

Tenses

DIRECT SPEECH => REPORTED SPEECH

Present Simple => Past Simple

She said, "I am at home". => She said that she was at home.

He said: "I play with Tom every day". => He said that he played with Tom every day.

Present Progressive (Continuous) = > Past Progressive (Continuous)

You said, "They are running". => You said that they were running.

Present Perfect Simple => Past Perfect Simple

He said, "I have sold my guitar".=> He said that he had sold his guitar.

Past Simple Past => Past Perfect Simple

He said, "I bought a computer". => He said that he had bought a computer.

Past Progressive (Continuous) => Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous)

You said, "I was singing". => You said that you had been singing.

Future of Intention ("going to") => Past of Intention ("going to")

She said, "I am going to finish this". => She said that she was going to finish that.

Future Simple => Conditional

They said, "We will study". => They said that they would study.

Future Perfect => Perfect Conditional

She said, "I will have finished it by Friday". => She said that she would have finished it by Friday.

Future Progressive (Continuous) => Progressive (Continuous) Conditional

She said, "I will be having a meeting at 4 pm". => She said that she would be having a meeting at 4 pm.

Some additional changes

this => that

these => those

here => there

now => then

ago => before

today => that day

this morning => that morning

last week => the previous week

last month => the previous month

last year => the previous year

next week => the following week

next month => the following month

next year => the following year

yesterday => the day before

tomorrow => the next day or the following day

the day before yesterday => two days before

the day after tomorrow => in two days time or two days later

SAY & TELL

Basic rules:

(Reglas básicas)

Say something to someone: I say hello to Margaret.

(Decir algo a alguien)

Say something: He says hello

(Decir algo)

Tell someone something: I told Margaret that her parents were at home then.

(Decir a alguien algo)

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